Volume 5 Winter 1983 - Spring 1984


The True and False Unicorn
Exemplar - T. Henry Moray
Operatie Elixiris Philosophici - Michael Sendivogius
An Old Alchemical Manuscript
Alchemical Dictionary
Manufacturing Sulphur Crystals
Medicine and Esotericism
Fango: Known - Unknown
Thoronet Abbey, Provence
Questions and Answers


The True or False Unicorn

The tales of the legendary Unicorn go back through many centuries. The first Unicorns were found as early as 2500 B.C. in China.

The Unicorn's temperament is said to be fierce and strong as well as full of gentleness and desirous of solitude.

"Save me from the lion's mouth: for thou has heard me from the horns of the unicorns."
(Psalm 22:21)

The Unicorn has even been said to have been in the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve, comforting them after their fall from innocence.

It was written during the middle ages:

"The Unicorn represents Jesus Christ, who took on him our nature in the virgin's womb, was betrayed to the Jews, and delivered into the hands of Pontious Pilate. Its one horn signifies the Gospel Truth, that Christ is one with the Father."
(Le Gesteare Devin by Guillaume)

Well known is the legend of the Unicorn, who, though pursued by hunters would stop when seeing a virgin maiden and lay its head in her lap.

Even "real" Unicorns were sought after for their horn, which was said to possess healing properties as well as being able to detect poison. For hundreds of years people believed firmly in the actual existence of the Unicorn. A famous tapestry illustrates this, showing the Unicorn dipping its horn into a stream to purify it so that other animals could drink of the purified water.

But ... is this the TRUE Unicorn ?

During the second year classes at Paracelsus College, students test the statements made by Basilius Valentinus in his TRIUMPHAL OF ANTIMONY. In this work he mentions to make a certain test with the skin of the true Unicom. Whenever the question is asked, "What is a Unicorn", immediately the answer is: "A legendary animal with but one horn on his forchead."

What, then, is a True Unicorn ? What does Valentintinus mean by it? To quote him, he says, "Then hold close to it, yet without making actual contact, a particle of true Unicorn." (Page 59-60.) It will be noted that he says TRUE Unicorn. This seems to make it even more mysterious, because he emphasizes the word TRUE. In actuality Aletris Farinosa, a root belonging to the Lily Family is the true unicorn, while Chamaclirium Lutcum is the false. Both are to be found listed under their botanical names as such. Valentine gives the TRUE Unicorn a dual polarity of attraction and repulsion. That is, it repulses poison and attracts non-poison. We may therefore not be wrong if we attribute Unicorn to Mercurial influences. (We do not have enough evidence on hand to fully substantiate this.)

So - anyone making attempts to go hunting in a legendary forest to kill a True Unicorn so he can get some its skin, may retrace their steps and find it right here in the United States in their own forests.

Then is there a Unicorn existing after all? Yes, even two. A TRUE and false root by that name.


T. Henry Moray

From time to time in the world men of vision receive little or no recognition for their work, passing on to leave behind a legacy for others to follow. Such men as Slava (a Spanish physicist), who demonstrated radio 150 years before Marconi; Joshuis Coppersmith, who preceded Bell; LeBon, who predicted the Atomic Bomb in 1891 and Nikola Tesla, the father of our modern system of electricity; found themselves isolated from the rest of the world because they would not accept the dictates of big business and the outside pressure groups.

Very often they became a legend in their own time. Such a man was Thomas Henry Moray, or as he liked to be referred to, T. Henry Moray. Dr. Moray resented the stories often told about him that exaggerated the truth. He felt that people needed to know the truth, whether they spoke for or against him. On occasion he confronted people who were talking about him, telling of his work when he was aware they knew nothing about it.

He had two favorite quotations. First from Tesla, "Throughout space there is energy - if kinetic - and we know it is, for certain -, then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature." Second, from an old text, The Nature of the World and of Man,
"Enough energy is coming to the earth to light over 1.5 million (1,693,600) 100-watt lamps for every human being on the earth today. Without the use of a prime mover, no fuel of any kind need be taken as a dead load since this energy can be 'picked up' directly by ocean liners, airplanes, or any form of transportation. Heat, light and power can be made available for use in all kinds of building and for all kinds of machinery. An example would be to pump water onto the desert lands, the power source being only a fraction of the weight of any steam plant or any kind of engine in use today, and all this at a fraction of the current cost."

"A wild dream? No! It's a proven reality, as hundreds of people know who have witnessed the Moray Radiant Energy invention - powered from the cosmos." So stated Thomas Henry in the original edition of his book, The Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats.

Nikola Tesla insisted the energy of the universe was waiting to be tapped. Great scientists have mathematicalIy proven its existence. Why has this great source of energy been ignored? Is the reason political or economic?

It is well documented that he developed a bi-polar semi-conducter as early as 1927, making a complete disclosure to Dr. Harvey Fletcher of the Bell Laboratories. Dr. Fletcher later became head of the department at Bell Laboratories that developed the transistor. His (T. H. Moray's) work dates from he time he was 9 years old (1901), and by 1939 he had successfully demonstrated that his Radiant Energy Device would deliver as high as 50,000 watts of power.

Dr. Moray, was harassed, threatened, and even shot. Even though eminent scientists examined his device during and after its operation, and admitted that they could not understand the source of the power they had witnessed, still he was never able to gain their support for his work.

It is interesting to note that the greatest opponents of his work became the greatest competitors. Dr. Harvey Fletcher gave an unequivocal endorsement to the Eyring Institute regarding the Radiant Energy Device and what he had witnessed years before, where he had refused to do so for Dr. Moray.

Over the 73 years of T. Henry Moray's research, he left behind him a wealth of notes, not only pertaining to Radiant Energy., but a wide range of scientific research bordering all the way from the devulcanization of rubber, the influence of mineral reactions in the presence of high energy, bioelectronic effects (electro therapy), sound pick up, solid state physics, and finally the detection of energy that constituted the major endeavor of his work.

He established his own research organization which has continued to do his research. Cosray plans to bring this work to a conclusion as soon as financial assistance will allow. Today Cosray includes research conducted in two countries following the patterns set down by T. Henry Moray. Decentralization prevents destruction of the work by opponents. His two sons Richard R. Moray, and John E. Moray are actively, engaged in this research organization.

The Morays wish to encourage others to enter into this area of research, not to duplicate Dr. Moray's work. but to show independent verification, thus establishing it in the world. The family has established a research foundation for this purpose and have republished Dr. Moray's original book adding 6 chapters of history under the name of THE SEA OF ENERGY.

Today a number of other researchers have entered the field, however, the Morays have refused to endorse any of their work.

Dr. Moray's corporation still exists and is known today as Cosray Research Institute, Inc., in Salt Lake City, Utah.


Operatie Elixiris Philosophici

by Michael Sendivogius

Translated by Rafal T. Prinke - Poznan, Poland

Operatie Elixiris Philosophici, according to both ancient and contemporary Philosophers, which were tried by me and others of my age, are described shortly and truly as follows from the MS written in 1586 and published in 1965, in Polish with fragments in Latin.

The First Operation

The most ancient and the truest operation of the old Philosophers, but dangerous and long, was from the amalgam of Sol and Mercury or Luna and Mercury, which we carried out according to their teaching and with the help of Lumen nature (the Light of nature) in the following way.

We took one ounce of Aurum (gold- purged - purified) by antimony, six ounces of Argentum which was vivified by sublimation of Mercury, and prepared the amalgam from them in the usual way. This we pressed through leather until only three ounces of the amalgam were left, that is one ounce of Aurum and two ounces of Argentum Vivum. Having placed it in a hermetically closed phial we kept it on a very light fire until after over 40 days it started to pass ad nigredinem (into the black stage), which Philosophers call Caput Corvi (Raven's Head). Then we gave more fire until Various colours as in cauda Pavonis (Peacock's Tail) began to appear. Here we made an error. The fire applied was stronger than it was necessary, and the matter turned red at once and the precipitate from it was such that no operation (i.e. transmutation) could be performed, however it was very useful for healing the human body. I understand that this operation could have been carried to a successful end but regimen Ignis (Mastery of Fire) is very difficult and dangerous, and requires great perseverance and a very long time.

In this way acted the old Arabs, such as Morigenes, Alphidius, Calid Balilonus, Blemidas, Adros, Abohali (i.e. Avicenna), Tabid, Chora, Charab, and of the Greeks, Olimpidorus Alexandrinus, Ostanes, Heliodorus and Albugazai, the teacher of young Plato and among the more recent and fron the last century Augurellus, Bernardus Trevisanus, Magister Hospitalis and Beatus Thomas de Aquino, if he is the author of those books usually circulatcd under his name. In many times this operation was performed in Rome by Jacobus Boncompagnus, the duke of Sora and Arpino, and by Wernalcon, a great man from Naples, but not one of them arrived at the correct result due to the length of the process. as at least three years must be devoted to it.

Michael Sendivogius

The Second Operation

Then we performed it with the same amalgam but in another way, since instead of the common Mercury (Argentum vivum communa) we took live Mercury (Argentum vivum factum obtained from the Sun and the moon These two we conjoined together with common Mercury, adding the ferment of gold (fermentum ex Auro) for retainment. Here again an error had been made because of the fire which in a few months, turned all this into red powder or rather precipitate.

I do not consider this process to be worthless, either, but state that it requires a long time of as many years (as the previous one) and is dangerous because of the fire.

The Third Operation

Others, with whom he stayed, worked on the amalgam of Sol and Mercury, to which they added sublimated Arsenic as a medium joining the two extremes, that is Sol and Mercury. However they also did not achieve anything because in no way could they fix that matter permanently.

The Fourth Operation

Leaving the amalgams in peace, we started working on sublimated Mercury alone, according to the teachings of Geber the Arab, though we did not understand his doctrine well at that time. We sublimated for several times ordinary Mercury (Mercurium vulgi) with salt and Vitriol. Then we put this sublimate in a hermetically closed glass container (Vitro) and sublimated it, bringing down what had gathered at the top for many times until Mercury refused to sublimate and remained at the bottom in the form of oil. We thought it had been the oil of fixed Mercury sublimate and conjugated it with small stones of crystal gold (Lapillis Chrystallinis Auri) and kept it upon fire until the matter became intensely red. Then we performed projection on Luna and tinged it considerably to the 24th degree. But we did not achieve anything, as after digesting the precipitate (cementum) in nitric acid (aqua forti) only one part of it proved to be gold, so that the long work was not rewarded. Both in this operation and in others a great failure occurred in fixation.

The Fifth Operation

Thus not having achieved anything, I then performed with Sir Teodor Lacki in Rome another operation which he had learned from a Franciscan monk. The monk had given him an ounce of the ready medicine and taught him how to multiply it, but he had not taught him the exact preparation of it (verum modum operandi). The operation of the monk was the following: he ordered to take one ounce of Mercury sublimated seven times and four ounces of the Lime of Luna (Calx Lunae), to rub it together on a stone, and then to sublimate it in a glass vial on low fire (lentus ignis) for so many times that Mercury sublimates no more and remains on the bottom together with the Lime of Luna. Later, when this occurs, he ordered to add another ounce of sublimated Mercury and fixate it as before, and repeat this multiplication infinitely (in infinitum). Sir Lacki performed all this first at Bologna, multiplying that one ounce he had received from the monk and transmuting Venera into most perfect Luna. However, when he wanted to teach this process to Boncompagno in Rome and when it had to be begun from the beginning, he could not do anything because he was unable to prepare the Lime of Luna (Calx Lunae). I take this operation to be a true one because it agrees with the true doctrines and precepts of the Philosophers and also (because) I sold the silver made in this way, while Boncompagno gave several thousands to Sir Lacki when lie had seen the projection of this medicine on Venera. However, as Sir Lacki did not know the beginning, which the monk had not revealed to him, there has been no benefit from this operation since that time.

The Sixth Operation

We also made, and that was our first operation in Venice with the Abbott Jacobo Busenelo (who is still alive and in whose possession I had earlier seen a little of the powder of the Philosophers' Stone), the White Elixir from the oil of Arsenic and the oil of Luna, imbibing them with the oil of winestone (Tartarus) and then dissolving in humidity into an oil (in humido in oleum), and finally congelating in ash bath. It tinged Venera but did not withstand the trial in fire. There we also made small stones from the Sun of Mars and Venera (alternatively: from the Sun, Mars and Venera) and obtained a tincture, but it was impermanent in fire.

The Seventh Operation

We prepared oils from the sun and the Moon, which served for macerating imperfect bodies. Those from the sur were made with royal water (aqua regis), and those from the Moon with strong water (aqua forte, i.e., nitric acid), prepared from Vitriol and saltpeter. However, after long putrefaction they did not become real oils, because they reduced again into metallic bodies. And we observed that strong waters do not dissolve metallic bodies but only calcinate them.

Also in Venice, we made many, at tempts with Jupiter and Saturn but with no benefits because, as says Aristotle in the second book of Physics, "Not everything is formed from any given germ but from a specific one." And the same Aristotle in the book "On Animals", adds: "Nothing is formed from any germ but from one only, and only from that one."

The Eighth Operation

Afterwards, giving up those workings we drew the tincture of the Sun out of gold with spirit of wine (per spiritum Vini), according to the teachings of Theophrastus. A heavy and whitish Body was left on the bottom of the vessel, from which we made live Silver (Argentum vivum), and then from that live Silver we prepared an oil and conjungated it with the Tincture extracted from gold, as above. We kept it over Lamp Fire (ad Ignem Lampadis for nine months until it congeall into a red transparent Stone, so that we believed we had the true Elixir in hand. However, when we performied its projection, first on Mercury and then on Luna, it evaporated in the fire to our great disappointment.

The Ninth Operation

Then we set to study the works Raimundus Lullus, which appeared fundamental to us and described the operations very reasonably. First, prepared his Vegetable solvent (menstruum Vegetabile), in the following way. We calcinated Tartar (i.e. wine stone) in reverberatory fire until it turned white and then dissolved it in humidity into oil, and then, after filtering, we congealled it in an Ash Bath (in Cineribus). Then again we solved, filtered and congealled it, peating thisfor many times, until th was nothing earthly left in it and until it became as transparent and bright as crystal. On it we poured the spirit of Wine and extracted the soul of Tartar by repeated distillation until the Tartar on a red-hot sheet of copper did not give off any smoke. Then we calcinated the Tartar prepared in this way on the strongest fire for three days until it got loose like a sponge. Next we put it into a vessel with a long neck, poured animated spirit of Wine on it and kept it in a water bath (balneum Mariae) digesting for two days. Then we dissolved the Phlegm which separated from the earth impregnated with its soul (anima). Then we added more spirit of Wine and acted as in the first instance until the earth absorbed the whole of the spirit and the soul. Taking it off the bath, we put it in an ash bath and exposed to the fire of sublimation for twenty-four hours, keeping the same grade of fire. On the sides of the vessel sublimated the salt of Wine, as transparent as pearls, which Raimundus Lullius calls the nonfermenting Stone. We took four ounces of this salt and twelve ounces of a most pefectly rectified spirit of Wine and conjugated them. Then, on distilling it, we dissolved the sun in it and putrefied it in a bath for a philosophical month. Then we separated the vegetable water and beneath there was left a gum of gold, which was volatile and therefore it would take a long time to fix it, so we made a medicine for curing human bodies of it. We did so especially because I was going to Poland and could not stay there any longer.

The Tenth Operation

Then I prepared, already here in Poland, the animal solvent of Raimundus (menstruum Raimundi Animale), with which I perfected Mercurial water made from sublimated Mercury and the white of a hen's egg. This water dissolved also the Sun and the Moon but when I came to the end of the work, it could not be fixed by any means. With the same solvent made from animal salt and Mercurial water, I dissolved the Moon and passed it distillating through the Alembic. Then I dissolved the Sun in that water with the Moon. But when it came to fixation, all the work proved to be good for nothing. Finally, understanding that the Philosophers took a different Mercury, for their works, not the vulgar one, I prepared Mercury from various imperfect bodies, such as Mars, Saturn, Jupiter. I amalgamated the amalgam of Mercury and Saturn with gold, digesting it with the oil made from common salt and fixed it. After putting it in an ash bath, the gold I had added was left, but the amalgam of Mercury and Saturn evaporated.

Being unsatisfied with this, I calcinated imperfect bodies of Mars, Saturn, Jupiter, extracting their souls with the spirit of Wine. Then I calcinated the damned earth (terra damnata), again added the souls of their Earths, and sublimated from this animated earth the metallic sulphur of nature, which I treated with oil of the sun, that is sulphur of Saturn and Mars, while that of Jupiter - with oil of the Moon. I congealled all this together and then solved, repeating this operation several times. However, all this work was good for nothing and I came to the conclusion that the Philosophical elixir cannot be prepared from imperfect bodies.

The Eleventh Operation

Next I began working with minor minerals, such as Antimon, Mineral Cinnabar, fixed White Sulphur, and finally took to Vitriol of Gold, going even to Padua, to Grumi, who had been working on this vitriol for over twenty years. In all these things I also found nothing but sophistications and futile excuses, as the old rule says that the one who does not have, cannot give anything (Nemo dat quod non habet). And everything that was and is done by contempoary Artists, who do not know - as says Theophilus - that Philosophers make many intentional errors in their books, does not allow them to reach the end. And therefore says the Senior: "They have not hidden anything but the preparatory working, because it is the most difficult thing. That is why when seekers found the proper thing, they did not know how to prepare it. The matter cannot be realised without knowing the proper way of preparation."

The Twelfth Operation

I also know of others who prepared Elixir from Vitriol and Gold in the following way. They made oil of Vitriol as usual, and then from the dead Head (Caput mortuum) of this vitriol they extracted salt with distilled water. This salt was then conjugated with the oil and circulated in a water bath for a long time. Then they dissolved calcinated gold in it, purified that gold, and finally congealled it in an ash bath. However, they could not produce any transmutation in this instance, though it was a good medicine for human bodies.

Others made oil from Antimony and sublimated mercury. When it was well rectified, they dissolved gold in it. Putrefied and congealled it repeatedly but did not invent anything.

Others made Mercury from Antimonite and metal from Antimony, but none of them reached the desired end. And I saw various operations of many people, none of whom has reached the completion of the art. About them says the sixth book of Aristotle's Tropics that they should be blamed for too literal translation of names and for the style of their work, but not for their reasoning.

I have made many errors myself and have seen others making them. All of us, as Hali says, have completed the first part of the work properly but failed to understand the second one, and also lacked the necessary confidence. Without these the first part cannot be continued. And so we kept shooting beside the aim and have been left with unfulfilled intentions. The first part will not be permanent if the second one is not allied to it, because that second part is the key to the whole work. That is why Balgus says in Turba Philosophorum: "At one time I saw a person who understood the question of the Elixir in the same way as I do. However, he did not reach his happiness because of the harshness of his character, misunderstanding the idea of the Key, impatience in carrying out the process, and excessive hurriednes of, the whole understanding."

Summing up my previous attempts I state that after many experiments and after reading many books I have understood that the old Philosophers, seeing the difficulty, length and danger of some operations, and the uncertainty of others, found a safer way which adheres closely to one and the same law of Nature. However, they wrote so little about it that there is no book in which there would be a sentence of ten understandable words about it. Because the old Philosophers, having learned the origins of both generation and multiplying of metals, as well as well as where their diseases come from (the interference of which causes that less of the Sun or the Moon comes into being), discovered a means of removing those diseases and defects. They found in metals a certain substance which protects them so that they are burned neither by fire nor by their own sulphur so abundant in them. They called this substance the Fixed Philosophical Mercury. It can be elicited from all metals in the one and only way and by one and only method, without any separations, solutions, sublimations or fixations, because it solves itself, purges itself, coagulates itself, sublimates itself, fixes itself, and makes itself fusable without any care or danger. This is the greatest secret of all secrets, namely that there is no more certain or shorter way than this one which leads through the fixed Mercury of Metals, because you cannot make any error here, nor can you damage your work with fire. For one cannot fix that, the substance of which is already fixed.

Let us (says Geber the Arab in the book "De Perfectione Magisterii") adore the glorious and highest GOD who created Mercury and gave it substantiality and substantial properties. It would probably be impossible to find any other thing in Nature which would possess the properties of this kind and equal power. Mercury is that which is superior to fire: not only is it not conquered by fire, but it is even friendly towards fire and rests in it with joy.

Aristotle in Tropics: "One cannot reach the truth if he has not known the falseness."

The same in the first book of Ethics: "That one is a good judge who properly estimates the things which he knows."

Rafal T. Prinke's Comments on the Alchemical Diary of Michael Sendivogius

The text of the Twelve Operations by Michael Sendivogius was translated From the original Polish version published in 1970 from the MS now in Lvov (USSR). It was written in 1586, i.e. when Sendivogius was twenty years old, and forms a kind of diary or memoirs of the young (though mature) alchemist, describing his experiences in laboratory practice up to that year. The document is of great importance both as a list of experiments and theories current among practitioners of alchemy at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, and especially as presenting Sendivogius in a different light than is used to be done.

In the article on the Polish Alchemist in The Hermetic journal No. 15* I tried to explain why most of contemporary authors treat him as an imposter who stole the tincture and manuscripts of books from an adept, Alexander Sethon. While all the older writers considered Sendivogius to be an authority, Michael Maier, a very influential alchemical and Rosicrucian author, included him among the twelve greatest adepts in history. The cause of that mistreatment of Sendivogius can be traced to A. E. Waite's Alchemists Through the Ages and further back to hostile French publications about Sendivogius published in the 17th century. However, there are some notable exceptions among contemporary writers on Alchemy, such as Manly Palmer Hall or Frater Albertus, who treat him with due respect.

One of the false opinions about Sendivogius circulated by most modern books on the subject is that he had been ignorant of the art of Alchemy before he met Alexander Sethon and acquired a certain amount of the Stone from him. This statement is definitely false as is clearly seen from the above text. It was written in 1586 (i.e. sixteen years before meeting with Sethon) and shows Sendivogius to be well versed in Alchemical literature and experienced in laboratory practice.

The first operation he describes was carried out according to the teachings of no less than 17 authorities, both old and new, whom he quotes, and is the traditional process with the usual sequence of colors, etc. Operations two and three are variants of the first one, and then Sendivogius goes on to try out the teachings of Geber in operation four. The fifth, sixth and seventh operations were performed according to the recipes he had learned from people he knew, the eighth one is according to Paracelsus, the ninth and tenth according to the teachings attributed Raymond Lull, and the eleventh operation relates his own attempts. Finally the twelfth operation describes the attempts of Sendivogius's contemporaries, about which he knew, and contains his conclusions. He is honest enough to state that he has not achieved the desired end and gives the reasons why, according to him, he was unsuccessful.

The twelfth and last operation contains also the germ of the later theories of Sendivogius, expounded in New Light of Alchemy, Treatise on Salt, Treatise on Sulphur and his complete work 55 Philosophical Letters. The key role in those theories is played by saltpeter (KNO3), which he calls variously "the central salt/sal centrale/", "the salt which floats on the sea of the world," "the water which does not wet hands and without which nothing in the world can come into being," etc. This salt, according to the Polish Alchemist, draws to itself "the aerial Mercury" or "spiritus vitalis" from the air, which is solidified or fixed in it and can be obtained from it. His descriptions of this vital substance show very clearly that it may be identified with oxygen and therefore that Sendivogius was the real discoverer of that chemical element. Moreover, he also describes the function of oxygen in the processes of burning and breathing, stating that its seat in the human organism is in the blood. He also understood the laws of vegetable life and encouraged the use of fertilizers, especially, saltpeter, in agriculture.

These few words are enough, I believe, to show that Sendivogius was a true seeker, while the well documented transmutations which he performed during his life testify that he was successful in his search.

*EDITOR: Adam McLean, Edinburgh, Scotland.


An Old Alchemical Manuscript

"Out of the books of old philosophers, where truths lie veiled in hidden symbols and meanings, not plainly set forth, but nevertheless greatly desired and considered of inestimable value by all philosophers, I shall lay bare sufficient facts covering an excellent part of this philosophy known to be most certain and exact called The Rosary. This I have drawn out of the books of the philosophers as a rose from thorne." These words as well as the following excerpt are found in An Old Alchemical Manuscript.

Many men are doubtful as to what manner of thing the Philosopher's Stone is because it is never openly spoken of by any of them. Different men give different opinions. When it is plainly manifest, it consists of only one thing that which we hold most precious. We are taught that all other things are unnecessary and should be eschewed; and truly it is manifest by the writings of the philosophers that the stone is one and no strange thing is to be put into it. For, there is nothing that agrees with it but that which is of its own nature.

In nature things bring forth their own kind. Man brings forth a man, the lion a lion. Everything engenders his own kind except the mule, which is of a strange kind, a mixture of many kinds. Therefore they never mate with their own nor are they engendered like parents but are procreated of many kinds. Hence, it is necessary that the elements be of one kind, not of many different kinds, or they will not have action and passion between them inasmuch as one would not come in contact with the other.

When things are of one kind, their root are one and the diversities are caused by the diversity of their parts. Therefore know the pure from the impure for no thing can give that which it has not. Uncleanness cleaves to uncleanness because they are of one kind, but cleanness overcomes nature and does not permit impurity to enter in. This is because cleanness is of one essence and free from alteration, but that which is unclean is of many different parts and easily corrupted. The proof of this is in the Sun and Saturn. Saturn is utterly corrupted but the Sun not at all. Therefore, all the planets need the Sun's light.

Knowledge of the qualities of the metals (bodies) and of the beginning of their creation makes this art (the work of the stone) easy. Therefore do not search in nature for that which is not in her. All things are made according to their nature, and there is more corruption in the things that are very passive than in things which are less passive. Nature is in the Sun as the heart is in man. Therefore use this most noble member and things will be more simple for you and it will suffice. The heart is of the body as the brain is of the head. In the heart is the power of the soul which is not rational. In the brain is the power of reasoning. That which has the fewest angles is the most simple as the triangle is more nearly round than the quadrangle because it has fewer corners. Therefore avold the mixed and use the more simple, for it is the kind of kinds and the form of forms; it is the first and last of the planets as the Sun is of the stars.

I will now change my speech and talk of that which is homogeneous, that is, of one kind in nature. These are the strongest, for in using things which arc similar in kind or in accord the way is made easier. Inasmuch as that wfilch is sought is of the gender of both the lights of the world (Sun, male, and Moon, female), it behooves us to choose that which is homogeneous to them both. Male and female gender is appropriate unto men. Therefore, we know this work cannot be made perfect except by this means.

Aristotle wrote to Alexander the Great, thus: "The crowns of kings are made beautiful with precious stones, the loveliness of which bewilder the sight. The mind is made joyful, dignity is increased, and grievous sicknesses are expelled from the body by their virtues. All medicine is without value or worth without them, so all physicians use them in medicine." This is evidence that the best stone of all stones is the one whose virtues expel all disease. The stone that is decocted the most, is heated closest to the fire, and is least broken by the fire is the one that is of the most value and lasting good. Precious stones, such as rubies and sapphires, are best for they are engendered in a more intense heat, closer to the fire. So, likewise is it with metals. The Sun (gold) is more worthy than the Moon (silver) because it is hotter and the Moon is greater than Mercury or any other metal. As the ruby has in it the virtues of all other precious stones so the Sun has in it the virtues of all metals that are flattened (malleable) under the hammer, for it contains all metals in itself and colors and quickens them. The Sun gives his light up to Saturn and down to the Moon because he is the most noble of all. In him are all things both great and small as evidenced by the generation of fire in water. Next in nobility is the Moon.

The fault of the other metals (bodies) is their inequalities. In Mars (Iron) and Venus (copper) cold is lacking. In Saturn (lead) and Jupiter (tin) there is no heat. And none of these four metals (bodies) can be made gold (Sun) unless they first be made silver (Moon), for you cannot get from the first to the third except by means of the second. The Sun (gold) and Moon (silver) are equally made and truly temperate and are more important than all other metals under heaven in the work of our most precious stone. Of all things in the world the Sun (gold) is the most worthy for it is the ferment of the elixir without which (the stone) cannot be fully made. It makes the mind happy, conserves youth, takes away old age and all diseases of the body. It is as yeast is to bread, rennet is to cheese, and musk is to perfume.

The Sun encircles the upper part of the stone; the Moon the lower part. And so, everything enfolds its own just as all vegetables, being of one root, are increased by their own kind. The Sun has the tincture of redness which transforms all metals (bodies); the Moon is a lady of humidity whose tincture is white. When the spirits of silver (Moon) and gold (Sun) are blended and fixed with great wisdom, which cannot be done by a dull witted artificer, for the work is accomplished in accordance with the art of the craftsman, it dies and seems like a dead thing. But afterwards, it revives, It lives, it grows and is multiplied like other things. Therefore, unless the gold (Sun) be mortified and converted into spirit it remains alone and cannot be blended; but after its death it shall bring forth much fruit. When all that it was seems to be lost then that which it was not begins to appear. Those who cannot distinguish the difference do not understand the laws of nature.

All metals must be calcined and dissolved with great care for they are not perfect. What need have you for other metals when you may use that (gold and silver) which is more temperate and less impure. But if you need to use other metals, they must first be converted into one kind or the other. Then, you can begin the work. It is possible to do the work with lesser metals, for there is power and virtue in all metals; but they are not as pure or worthy and they cannot be used until they are refined and made perfect.

Both the white tincture (Moon) and the red (Sun) spring from the same root, nothing strange or different coming between. For, the work of the Moon (silver) is whiteness, which is formed of the purest matter of the Sun (gold). Yet, it holds none of the color of the Sun (gold). Nevertheless, when the Sun (gold) is lacking in Argentum Vivum, it is separate (not conjoined) and lacks effectiveness in true generation of matter and form. Therefore, in this art we are concerned primarily with the Sun (gold) and Moon (silver), but you must use care in their dissolution and reduction to first matter.

The first matter of metals is a liquid or "water" called Argentum Vivum. Water is the material principle of all metals (bodies) and all metals can be resolved into it. Ice is dissolved into water by heat, so all metals may be re solved into Argentum Vivum, or first matter. Therefore, blessed be the glorious God on high and sublime nature which have given us the intelligence to reduce things to their first nature.

There are six metals that must be prepared and reduced to their first matter of earth and spirit. The craftsman can, by art, accomplish in a few days above ground that which it would take nature 1000 years to accomplish. Therefore if we derive no other benefit from Argenturn Vivum than this - that it reduces metals to their first nature-it is sufficient, for it is friendly and agreeable to metals and the means of joining tinctures. It takes unto itself all that is of its own nature and refuses all that is contrary and unfriendly, for all its parts are homogeneous. Argentum Vivum overcomes fire and cannot be overcome by it. The strength and power of this commixture separates the subtle from the gross and that which is made thick cannot again be rarified or made thin even by intense heat. Therefore those metals that contain the most of it (Argentum Vivum) are the most perfect, and contrariwise. The final end of this work. is multiplication of Mercury and fixation. Therefore in this art learn all you can about the blending of spirits and, if you can make it perfect by itself alone, your study will be rewarded, for the precious mixture will overcome all things in nature.

In all kinds of medicine, as well as in our precious stone, Argentum Vivum is found, because there is no change from one extreme to the other but by the mean. In metals the extreme on one side is Argentum Vivum and on the other side the complete elixir. The mean of these is the six metals which abide under the hammer. Some of these are more pure than others and more nearly perfect, as you know. Take care for there is no true tincture except brass. Sun (gold) is brass, but all brass is not Sun (gold). (Arguing about gender and species is of no consequence.) Likewise, Sun (gold) is red earth, but all earth is not Sun (gold), for there are no sulphurous impurities in the Sun (gold). The first change is the appearance of the white tincture, which is the congealing of Mercury into Moon (silver), and after more digestion by fire the tincture will be red, which is the transformation of silver into gold.

Do not search for any other stone, foolishly spending money and suffering continual disappointment, for what you sow you shall reap. Accept the best, be grateful to nature, and pay no heed to the various names that are given to the changes in color. When it is crude, it is called Argentum Vivum, permanent water, lead, spittal of man, brass and tin. When it is decocted, it is called silver, magnesia, and white Sun (gold). When it is red, it is called coral, gold, and ferment. These and other names are used to describe the excellent nature of these things. But regardless of the diversity of names, all are one, for nature is not changed or improved except in her own way and will not tolerate anything alien or incongruous. Keep this constantly in mind in this work and do not make various attempts with different things.

Our art is not perfected by a multitude of things. Our stone is one, our medicine one, our vessel one, our reagent one, and there is one nature. We do not add anything alien nor take anything away. We merely remove that which tis superfluous', for neither in part nor in whole does anything enter into it which is not brought forth from it. If anything alien enters into it, it is at once corrupted and we xvill not find what we seek. Therefore, it is one-permanent, clean, bright, and gleaming, having a heavenly color. If there is anything in "our water" which changes (or alters) it, that which is sought will not be found.

We honor the Sun (gold) because "our water" is not attained without it and its shadow (Moon-silver), and with them no teeming venom is engendered. Whoever thinks he can make the tincture without these two proceeds blindly. Note: A body does not work in a body nor a spirit in a spirit, for form does not control form nor matter govern matter. Neither do those of one kind have any control over those of the same kind, because there is no action or passion and also because neither of them is more worthy than the other. Those things, which are alike do not have dominion over cach other. So, neither can get the upper hand; but the body takes the impression (imprint - expression) of the spirit and matter of form, for they are appropriately or fittingly created together to do and to suffer. The spirit penetrates the body and brings forth a tincture. But because of its grossness, the thick earthiness cannot produce a tincture unless it is penetrated by the very thin air (spirit). The Sun (gold) colors only himself until his spirit leaves his body and becomes sublime (spiritual).

Our "divine water" is like fire burning in the Sun, mortifying the metal and breaking it into parts better than the fire of the furnace. The more themetal is ground and mixed with the "divine water", which is living fire, the more disintegrated and thin it becomes. When it is broken up and made one, it has within itself all tincture - it both has it and gives it. Therefore, I say the Sun (gold) and his shadow (the Moon - silver) colors and makes our stone perfect. But if the stone were not of one substance, it would not have action and passion within itself when one (the spirit of Sun and Moon) touches the other, for stone and wood have no affinity because they are of different matter. So it is of all things which differ in nature.

It is necessary that the agent (active element) and the recipient be of one kind or species. In gender they must differ, as man and woman differ in their functions. Matter withstands art, but form assimilates matter, for matter naturally desires form as a man desires a woman or evil, good. So the spirit gladly, embraces the body, so that it may attain perfection. Therefore know the best basic minerals and work with them, for we can only know them by their root or origin.

The Stone of the Philosophers is called an "airy thing" (sublime), for it has in itself and of itself all things necessary for its perfection. It is found everywhere because all elements participate in it. The stone is called by many, names to control its nature and worth. It is most vile because of its corruption; most dear because of its virtues. The sequence of its colors are black, white, and citrine. Pay no heed to its many names for whatever it is called it is the same stone. Plillosophers care nothing for names, but only for the meaning of names which enable others to understand. They give the stone different names according to their concept of its many colors and properties. The stone is not subject to its names, but the names are limited (subjected) to the stone. Names only crudely divide one thing from another.

It is necessary that our medicine be white before it is red, for it cannot be red before it is white. There is no way to change from black to red except by white. Citrine is mostly white with some black. Therefore the red medicine and the white are not different in essence, but the red medicine is more subtle because it has been decocted longer and with hotter fire. The end of the work of the white tincture is the beginning of the work of the red. That which is completed in one is begun in the other. The work of the gold needs the red ferment. The work of the silver needs the white ferment.

The work undertaken by Alice Miller and those who helped her in translating this manuscript from Old English has made it possible for us to share with you at this time some of this material, throughout which is to be found valuable facts pertaining to the work. Such facts, presented in the manner they are given in this manuscript, are as a glorious herald of truth-which not only plainly announce the way but point clearly the way. May there come from this further realizations which enable us to proceed with our work with more understanding.



(As found in "A Lexicon of Alchemy" by Martinus Rulandus)

ABOIT, or ABIT-is White Lead. The same thing is signified by Alkarad, Almachabar, and Alsiden.
ABLUTION is exaltation by means of successive lustrations, washing away the impure refuse, and reducing the matter to a pure state. It is also called Imbibition and Cohobation, or digestion.
ABNELEITEM is Alum; also called Asfor.
ABRIC, KIBRIT, and KIBUZ-are names of Sulphur.
ABESSI is the same as Rebis, to wit, the last matter of the nutriments, which are absorbed by the body; that is to say, it is the excrement of the bowels.
ACAO is Soot; called also ARAXOS
ACAHI is Alum-water; called also Fefcol.
ACALAI is Salt; called also Alet.
ACARTUM is Cinnabar or Red Lead; called also Azemasor.
ACAID is Vinegar, or sour substances.
ACAMECH, or ACEMECH-is the scoria or refuse of Silver.
ACACIA FERREA-An iron spoon.
ASCAZDIR is Jupiter, or Tin; called also Alkain and Alomba.
ACCATUM is Tinsel; called also Aurichalcum, properly Orichalcum, which is the brass of the ancients. Accatem signifies the same.
ACHATES, the Agate, first found in Sicily, near the river of that name, and afterwards in other localities, as testifies Pliny, 1. 37 c. 10. There are various species, each bearing separate names: Jaspachates, Cerachates, Sardachates, Haemachates, Leucachates, Dendrachates, the veins of which are like unto minute trees; Autachates, which, when burnt, gives forth fragrance of myrrh; Coralloachates, distinguished by a golden speckling, after the manner of the sapphire; this variety is found in Crete. Agates are a safeguard against 'the bite of the spider, and eagles carry them to their nests to defend their fledglings against venomous animals. They allay thirst and strengthen sight. Concerning 'the rest, consult Pliny in the place cited, who also relates that various impressions of figures appear in agates; in some, for example, may be seen rivers, woods, cattle, beasts of burden, herds, war-chariots, minute statues, and the furniture or ornaments of horses. In particular, he relates (1. 37, c.1) how Pyrrhus had an agate gem in which could be seen Apollo and the nine Muses, with their insignias. I myself beheld a gem belonging to a nobleman, which, however, was not a true agate, but when the blemishes had been dispersed, it exhibited a rustic and a complete plough. I found also another at Albion Silicem, near the gate of Tangra, wherein appeared the likeness of a wolf or a lion, near a half-rose, so clearIv cut bs. nature as though the work had been done by a jeweler. Most credible truly are those things of Pliny when writing of the impressions upon this kind of stone.
ACETABULUS-A vessel for vinegar, or a cup-shaped vessel, holding as much as would an eggshell.
ACETUM AMINEUM - White vinegar. Aceturn also signifies sour wine, and in this sense Acetum Amineum would be sour white wine, wine of Aminaca, which was distinguished for wine culture.
ACETUM PHILOSOPHORUM is Philosophical Vinegar, that is, Virgin's Milk, or Mercurial Water, in which metals are dissolved. One of its Hermetic names was Sophic Hydor. According to Theophrastus, the Philosophical Vinegar is the Chemist's Vitriol water, but the Turba states that it is the water of mercury which dissolves gold. Others affirm that Philosophical Vinegar is that which is made from fresh shells of tortoises by sublimation and distillation.
ACETUM RADICALE is Radical Vinegar, or Vinegar distilled from its proper radix or matrix. It is also called dissolvent water.
ACETUM RADICATUM or Radicated Vinegar signifies in some authors that most sharp liquor of vinegar which remains at the bottom of the retort, after the phlegmatic part has been evaporated. It is made by distillation in the retort out of the dregs of vinegar. Or good vinegar, made from wine, may be placed in a retort, distilled gently by a moist heat, often poured back upon its caput mortuum, and dissolved in dung, after which it must be finally distilled, when that which is left may be taken and liquefied in a strong fire. The result is radicated vinegar.
ACCORDINA is Indian tutty: called also Alcordine.
ACORTINUS-A lupine, wolfs-bean, or horse-bean.
ACSUO is Red Coral.
ACUS-A needle.
ADAMAS, in Arabic Subedhig, in Latin Adamas (Pliny, 1. 37, c. 4), the diamond, which is found both apart from gold and in gold, contrary to the opinion of the ancients, who knew it only as native in gold among the metals of Aethiopia. But for the better understanding of this subject, observe the ensuing scheme, which we have elaborated out of Pliny in part, and in part from other authorities.
Not found in gold. and of these there are two species
The Indian diamond, not having its birth in gold, is known by its translucid crystal colour and sexangular sides; it is either cone-shaped at one end or else it has the form of a lozenge; it is sometimes as large as a hazel. This species is said by Serapion to approximate to the colour of Sal Ammoniac.
The Arabian diamond, likewise not found in gold, is smaller than the preceding.

Native is the most Perfect Gold.
I. The Greek stone called Cenchron, because it is the size of a millet seed.
II. Macedonian; generated in gold of Philippi; like the seed of cucumber size.
III. Cyprian; found in Cyprus; approaching brass in colour; most efficacious in healing.
IV. Having the splendour of iron sideritis (that is, according to Pliny, a precious stone; according to others it is loadstone; and again it is the plant (iron wort); surpassing the others in weight, but differing from them in nature; can be broken by blows, and pierced by another diamond.
The two last are degenerate, and scarcely deserve their name.
The best diamonds are impervious to blows on an anvil, which repel, so that even the anvil bursts asunder, while they themselves leap away invulnerable. And inasmuch as the diamond is indescribably hard, it contemns and conquers fire, nor has ever been consumed thereby. Whence, from its indomitable life and strength, it has the name dopaiw among the Greeks.
That herb which is mentioned by Pliny, (1.24, c. 17), which cannot be torn up, was also called adamant. The stone, however, can be shattered by the flesh, or rather by the warm blood of a young goat; more especially when the goat has first drunk wine or eaten rock parsley and mountain skirwort. For the above reasons, diamonds are much in request among lapidaries for cutting and shaping gems and other substances, for which purpose they ought to be mounted only in iron. Other metals they will by no means tolerate, while by lead, wonderful to say, they are themselves dissolved. Furthermore, the diamond is so hostile to the loadstone that it will not permit iron to be attracted in its neighorood, and if a magnet at close quarters should have attracted a peice of iron. the approach of a diamond will cause it to lose its hold.
In short, the diamond binds the magnet and strips it of its virtues. Oh, how wonderful is God in all His works! For the rest, the diamond irritates venomous animals, drives away frenzies, lemures, incubi, and succubi; it makes men strong and lively, and it for this rea son called anachitis (that is, anancitis from the Greek-dv-ayxw, to free from distress). It prevails against contentions and quarrels, and cures viscous fluxes. Consult Serapion and Evax. Some will have that the diamond is cold and dry in the fourth degree, others, on the contrary, that it is hot and dry, inasmuch as it is mixed with warming medicines. Did the matter receive investigation, doubtless diamonds would be found in our mines, as they have been found in times past: witness Pliny on the authority of Metrodorus Scepsius. In Bohemia stones of excellent quality are still seen, which surpass Oriental diamonds in shape and lustre. Consult Salinus, De Adamante, c. 55. The ancient astrologers referred the diamond to the Moon.
ADAMAS ACUMINATUS- A four-sided diamond point.
ADAMAS QUADRATUS PLANUS-A flat square diamond.
ADAMATUM-A kind of bright stone.
ADAMITA-A species of tartar; a kind of wine-stone or kidney-stone. (Wine-stone, Germ. - Tartar.)
ADARNECH is Orpiment.
ADARCES, ARTIS-According to some this is a marine flesh, a spongy growth, a froth or efflorescence, a congealed saliva having birth in sea-shallows, especially of Cappadocia and Galatia. The Indian species is found among reeds and cane-brakes on the shore. It has similar qualities to the substance called Halcyon. It termed formerly Pericalamite and Calamoch. Some physicians make use of these ridiculous substances while they despise more noble things. They have even gone so far as to obscure names for it, which would be a puzzle to Oedipus himself. Some having written as follows: Take the fat of the deformed child and the tears of the vine of Dionysius. Who shall understand this save Oedipus? Who shall quickly interpret the deformed child to be the she-bear, and the gum of the vine of Dionysius to be the gum of the ivy? The Adarces here referred to must be distinguished from the true Adarces or Oysters. It is a sort of thick, salt scum which collects about reeds in marshy places. Its proper name is Adarca, but this Rulandus confuses with the oyster, and says that its power in diseases is declared by Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 84) and by Pliny (1. 32, c. 6), who represents it as coming into existence around tender reeds amidst the spume of fresh water and sea water, and accredits it with caustic virtues.
ADARRIS is the spume or foam of sea water.
ADDERE-To augment; but also used as an equivalent of temperare, to combine in due proportion, to keep within bounds.
ADDITAMENTA-Addition, increase.
ADEC-Sour milk.
ADER-Fresh skimmed milk.
ADECH is our interior and invisible man, who raises up in our minds the images or archetypes of all those things which our visible and exterior man copies and forms with his hands. Each works after his own nature, the invisible things unseen, the sensible, under form sensible, those things which are within the dominion of the senses.
ADHEMEST, With its equivalents Aiohence and Altohonec, signifies a plate.
ADEPS-A fluid in its final distillation.
ADHEHE-Another term for sour milk.
ADIDACHOS, ADIDE ALARCOS, ADIDA LARCHOS-Various terms for "mixed with lime," slaked.
ADIDIST or ADEBEZI-The tortoise, also tortoiseshell.
ADOS-Water in which red hot iron has been plunged.
ADORAT-A weight of four pounds.
ADRAM - Metallic salt, Cappadocian salt.
ADRAREGES is green atrament; also blue sulphate of copper.
ADRARAGI-Garden Saffron.
ADROP, AZAR, AZANE-A kind of stone.
ADSAMAR-Signifies urine, but also lotion, fountain, etc.
ADVERSA VENAE PARS-Against the grain, literally, against the direction of a current; hence, opposition in general.
AER-Equals breath, breeze, spirit, wind, weather. AES or Copper is attributed to Venus by chemists. (N.B.-AES signified any Ore; i.e., any metal as it is dug from the earth, but especially refined copper.) It is a metallic body of a bluish colour with a dark ruddy tinge; it is igneous and fusible, and occupies a middle position between Sol and Luna, gold and silver. It is composed of quicksilver, but impure, unfixed, terrestial, combustible, ruddy, and not clear; and, in like manner, of sulphur wanting in fixity, purity, and density. Bad and feeble sulphur, like a father of ill complexion and disposition, copulates with a noble mother, that is, with quicksilver, and generates copper of good quality, a son of bluish colour, tinged with dark red.
This copper is obtained from veins in the mines, where there is abundance of pyrites, or marcasite, which beget the various species of vitriol, copperstone, copperas, inkstone, tutty, etc. Out of copper ore when it is melted there are obtained the several varieties of artificial Cadmia, Pompholyx, and Spodos (Pliny, 1. 34, c. 10-13). In the operation of the furnace, burnt copper is obtained, and scales of copper indifferently by cooling the heated metal and by hammering. Finally, verdigris is deposited on the surface of the excocted metal.
There are, broadly, two species of copper,-first, that which is found pure in copper and silver mines, and is in need of no purifying. Intertwined veins are sometimes met with, and again whole plates of thin metal which encompass the stone. Of this Albertus was ignorant. The second species is that which is melted out of pyrites or marcasite, and other substances; such as, slate, stone, as well as out of various earths and clays; also out of Chrysocolla and Azurite, like gold.
Aes, however, does not always denote copper, but sometimes gold or silver, as they exist in nature, without any mixture of other metal or stone-a pure, unmixed metal, out of which money was stamped sometimes, in the same way as from alloys artificially prepared. This substance was first found in Galilee, but in a small quantity. In our own day it is likewise seen, but rarely, and is only to be obtained by a miracle. (The German version says: Properly it is called copper, some call it simply gold or silver ore which has not yet been melted, but has been prepared by nature, and out of which coins have been occasionally struck.)
(The copper nuggets referred to by Pliny are identified with burnt copper by Rulandus, who also enumerates, Loaf-shaped copper masses, completely baked; Aes Caldarium, a copper warming vessel; Aes abstractum, copper extracted from the ore; Aes residuum, refined copper; Aes liquefactum, copper melted in an iron pipe. There is no context to explain the object of these enumerations.)
AES HERMETIS is the same as Mercury. It is also Solar Dust, the Head of the Raven, our copper, citrine earth, the thing containing and the thing contained, our lead. Mirerius calls it Gold extracted out of Metals; it is also termed Venus; Vitriol; Orpiment; Arsenic; Money; the Soul; the Green Lion; Green Water, because it germinates; Permanent Water; Wine; Blood. But it is truly properly an imperfect body, not yet prepared, and in its original state.
AES USTUM, or CREMATUM - Burnt copper according to Dioscorides (1. 5, c.42) is obtained by arranging alternate layers of copper bars with salt and sulphur, or alum, in an earthen vessel. The same author enumerates other methods, and burnt copper is made in our own day, out of copper, sulphur, and salt. Dioscorides praises the aes ustum of Memphis and Cyprus. It is astringent, desiccating, restrictive; it reduces, draws out, and cleanses and it heals ulcers. It is serviceable in complaints of the eye: it is a good emetic, when mixed with honey. It is cleansed like Cadmia, and is regarded as hot and dry. in the fourth degree. The sum or excrement of copper, prepared after the same manner, has the same virtues in a weaker degree. Consult Dioscorides as above.

The other species of Copper Ore and Copper are as follows:
1. Pure native copper.
2. Native red copper unalloyed as with other metals, found, clean and solid, in its own mines, in the Duchy of Mansfield.
3. Mined copper, found in its own veins.
4. Pure copper mined from argentiferous veins in Scheberg.
5. Red Mansfield copper, which contains silver.
6. Red native copper of Suacensis in the Rhetian Alps, which contains gold within it.
7. Copper of a chestnut brown colour, which adheres like a thin plate to the hard stone. Solid copper.
8. Of the ordinary colour, in a violent fluor-spar.
9. Of the ordinary colour, intermixed with stony substance.
10. Of its own colour, cleaving to hard stone, which has the glow of hot ashes.
11. Of its own colour, cleaving to a scissile stone. The German context speaks of a red copper mixed with sulphur on a slate bed; ruddy, solid copper.
12. Thin shavings of copper, in a white flint.
13. Veinlets or fibres of copper in a bright, ruddy stone; a preparation of a copper ore in a hard stone.
14. A rich vein of copper; a speedy process for pure copper.
15. Rough native, impure copper.
16. Pure solid copper of Moravia.
17. Natural yellow copper, goldcoloured copper, cleaving to brittle Mansfield stone.
18. Blue copper, cleaving to brittle stone,
19. Copper, entirely blue.
20. Brownish or violet copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
21. White copper, similar to rude white silver, in a brittle stone; a rich white copper ore.
22. Black copper ore.
23. Copper ore so abundantly mixed with brittle stone that 100 lbs; contains 40 lbs, of copper.
24. A natural solid copper of several colours, distinguished into cones of gold, purple, saffron, flaxen, green, and blue.
25. Friberg copper, allied to black lead, of so many excellent colours that they shine as if they were transparent.
26. Copper native in white lead, having the brightness of polished gold. The German version reads, born in black lead, as crystallized tin-ore.


Pointers for Manufacture of Sulphur Crystals

by Wriednig Ludwig

There are two kinds of sulphuric acids. One sulphuric acid is dark, the other light. The sulphuric acid manufactured in England is light and is to be preferred to the dark. The influence of the sun's rays causes the sublimation of the sulphuric acid in the pot. This sublimation of the sulphuric acid penetrates from within to the outside of the fired pot, and it becomes visible on the outside as a pure sulphur salt (or: sulphate) in crystallized form.

When all of the sulphuric acid has been sublimated, the sulphate crystals are carefully removed from the outside of the pot. In so doing, it is especially important that no sample ever be taken. Hands must be protected by always working with gloves.

This salt is extremely sensitive to light, air, and humidity. It is now triturated finely. While pulverizing it, a quarter of flowers of sulphur, as free of arsenic as possible, is added. This sulphur salt (or: sulphate) is to be kept airtight and dry in a dark vessel.

This sulphur salt (or: sulphate) is a universal cureall (or: panacea) which acts especially upon the bone structure in human beings.

It is dispensed in the order of magnitude (?) of a grain of a lentil, and it can only be taken once in ten years.

Before the sulphur salt (sulphate) is administered, a diet must be followed whereby everything acid, such as beer and also coffee, must be avoided. After taking the sulphur salt (or: sulphate) orally, the diet must be followed for at least another 14 days (or: two weeks). If this diet were not adhered to, the quantity (one lentil) would be increased many times, so that the sulphur salt (or: sulphate) would combine with kindred salts present in the body, and thus there would be danger to the life of the person concerned.

Since the administration in the order of magnitude of a grain of a lentil seems to me somewhat high, I would advise to arrange the dispensation in the sense of Homeopathy. If the persons take the same, the therapeutic effect is by far not the same.

Should someone try to manufacture this sulphur salt (or: sulphate) freed of arsenic, it is urgently recommended that he submit his manufactured sulphur salt (or: sulphate) to examination (or: a test) before administering it.

This process requires a time period of one year.

The vessel had at all times been exposed to the sun.

At night and also in the winter, the vessel had been placed in a humid cellar (in the window of a first floor English ground floor cellar.) (Note: Maybe the author means a basement room).

After this preliminary preparation of the sulphuric acid in the sense of Jacob Lorger, the sulphur crystals can now be further enriched with solar energy in order to obtain a sun remedy.

The use of sulphur crystals in biology is immeasurable (or: cannot be foreseen).

May 26, 1976

Medicine and Esotericism

by Dr. Werner Nawrocki

The number of physicians who turn with great interest to traditional medical treatments is growing steadily. In many places mostly young doctors, dentists - even surgeons - are forming groups for regular developmental meetings, so as to familiarize themselves with the "unscientific" methods. Such a circle - comprising exactly 500 members of the medical professions of all of Upper Bavaria - meets about every four weeks in Schwabing. Mostly so-called "outsiders" are the speakers. Thus a short while ago, the Frankfurt physician and esotericist Dr. Werner Nawrocki spoke on the subject of "Medicine and Esotericism." Here now, compiled by Theo Ott, follow a few excerpts from his spontaneous address:

The only thing that really cures is recognizing the meaning behind everything - meaningfulness.

Concerning myself: I am relatively, young, and therefore many may think: Oh well! What can he have to say! I have studied medicine and psychology, and have also received the additional title of "Doctor of Naturopathy and Homeopathy." I have lectured at world congresses in Geneva, Vienna and Florence - last year for the first time in connection with the topic "Esotericism and Medicine". Perhaps I can also tell you - so that you do not take me for a crackpot - that I am trained esoterically. On the other hand, I am a lecturer on general medicine at the University of Frankfurt.

And now I would ask you to leave, so to speak, your entire education I mean especially the academic one in the checkroom, so that together we can begin at a total zero mark.

Let us start with the concept of esotericism. Why is it called esotericism?

Formerly, we only spoke of the occult or secret sciences. But these words are already very difficult per se and always arouse unpleasant associations, especially with academicians - of course. "Secret Science" and "Occult"! For heaven's sake, are you doing table tilting or something like it?

No, it has nothing to do with that whatsoever. The word is Greek: Esoteros, the inner. It is actually due to the fact that since man has been on earth there has always existed a so-called inner circle. Today and at any time certain individuals are recruited from this esoteric inner circle, who then appear publicly and serve to communicate these ancient secret sciences, these old occult teachings, to those who are ready to hear them. In esotericism a very important point is: "do not indulge in missionary activities," "do not proselytize!" We should only speak to those who ask about it. And then only as much as they can assimilate at the time.

To think esoterically means to think substantially, to think according to the deeper meaning of things and events. First: Who am I? Who among you really knows who he is? Yes, you may say: I am John Smith, was born in such and such a town, etc., but that is a far cry from knowing who You really are. This is one of the most important and central questions of the whole of esotericism, ie., the whole of the "secret sciences."

The second question is: From where do I come? Here one can of course again say: I am the son of such and such parents, grandparents - and thus we somehow land at Adam and Eve. Is that satisfactory? I do not think so.

The third question is: What is that surrounding me? This also means the men and women whom I meet in the course of my life as well as the whole material plane, that is, the Earth, the houses, towns, and the relation in which I stand to them. Why have I married just this woman? - Yes, you say, it happened one day when I was, on vacation. Suddenly I met this girl and it is she whom I married later. Are these meaningful explanations to the three really important questions:

Who am I? From where do I come? What is that surrounding me and in what relation do I stand to it?

To these questions we 1 believe 1 can speak for all of you have received no answer at the university. Certainly not.

Esotericism means the everyday, it means life, living - it actually means that we get certain clues which enable us to experience the everyday better because we understand what is happening, because slowly we comprehend ever better who we are, why we are connected with these persons or this town. And as our understanding increases it may take a long time, even decades, faster with some, more slowly with others - our everyday becomes better!

In regard to these three questions Who am l? From where do I come? What is surrounding me, in what relation do I stand to it? - we have precisely excluded functional thinking. Now we begin to think substantially, to think in regard to substance or content.

Why is just this happening to me at this moment?

You should perhaps ask yourself this question a bit more often from today. If you ask it at first only for fun, even if you do not understand everything or are still rejecting almost everything, you will develop a wonderful relation to that which all of us reject more or less because we have been educated in such an odd way: that is, "religio." Only not "religio" in the sense of the Church institutions but in that of "religio" proper, which means, "linking back" or "reconnecting."

Because if you ask yourself: Why is this happening to me now? You are trying to connect back with the origin, whatever it may be. And then you are in the middle of esotericism. Thai which the priest should actually be, namely, the "Pontifex Maximus" - the bridgebuilder - this he has unfortunately not been. It means that at least on the whole priests have built very few bridges for me in regard to my special question: Who am I actually, why am I on this earth? The fundamental difference between scientific and esoteric thinking, or between functional and substantial thinking, is that we should always put the question after an event: Why is this happening to me at present?

Let me say a few words about chance, this subject always being a beautiful starting place for academicians. In so doing, we shall quickly see that our entire previous thinking would have to be remodeled. if we examined chance just a little.

As they are reaching the boundaries of our measurable areas, physicists increasingly arrive at the question: There must really be something behind it but what is it? This means, they arc inquiring substantially after the meaning. At least they have now got to the point where they admit: We cannot explain it, but we notice that this cosmos, in which we have developed for millions of years into Homo sapiens, is founded on specific constants, and if these would change by even one iota, everything would disappear.

Accordingly, nature operates by law. Could it be that the crown of creation, Homo sapiens, is an accidental factor, a chance happening? By chance, Jenny Jones? Has met her husband by chance? The contrary is true: Nothing is by chance, i.e., everything has meaning, everything is according to law. If we exclude chance, life becomes very unpleasant for each of us. It would have immense consequences, that is, you would have to consider everything as meaningful.

The only reason why we are so ready to postulate chance actually is that we are unable to recognize the law governing it. However, it is possible to do so. That all of us more or less cannot do it is not due to the fact that there is no law in operation but that we are too stupid to recognize it.

Such is also the case for esotericism, also for chance, also for the laws in operation. And this is so, absolutely and certainly so. It is at this certainty that we have to arrive. The way is a very difficult and hard one, and that is why nobody likes it.

If, therefore, there exists no chance, everything happening around us has meaning. That you knock your head, that you fall down the stairs, that you are fleeced by the Internal Revenue Service. . . . It all has its deeper meaning.

There is but a small problem: the time factor. Look, when you are 50 years old some day, then you can say: Really, it was not so stupid that my father brought me up so severely. He never gave me a penny, I had to work for everything myself. At that time I was mad, but when I look back - back at this today - I am grateful to him.

When I reach 50, I can recognize and explain many a thing as reasonable - and good which seemed to me nonsensical at the time.

A further important point is that we should recognize reality as it is and not as we wish it to be. That is why the esoteric training is quite a hard one. If, in fact, I learn to see the world as it is and not as I would like it to be, I hurt myself at first every tenth of a second But if I have overcome myself and have placed myself willingly under the law - it is what Schiller also writes, e.g.: "Wenn Pflicht und Neigung ubereinstimmen, bist Du frei!" (If duty and inclination coincide, you are free!) - then it is so beautiful that it can hardly be described.

Therefore, this means: no matter what you touch, for instance, a wall in reality it is not static, it vibrates, the wall. When 1 speak, there are also vibrations. All is vibration.

It is a hard way, the way of sensitizing the body to such an extent that other vibrations can be perceived. In the United States, in the medical science, in particular in Los Angeles, is a group of openminded scientists who say: No matter who you are, if you are able to heal with your hands, come to us and do it! They are so openminded that they examine everything. But they also fall into the error of believing that everything that is reality can be measured. There exists a fine saying of a scientist which runs: "The opinion Of present-day science is but the sum of the errors of living research." Precisely! In former years people were burnt because they asserted that the Earth was moving. Such is also the case for the outsiders of medicine.

Whoever has done a little bodysurfing knows: It is improbably beautiful to reach the crest of a big wave exactly. Meaning if we become one with the rhythm, it becomes quite easy, but by going against it, problems arise. And so even official medicine has recognized it. Since a few years we have biorhythm research, chronobiology. They have even already discovered that cortisone must be taken at a specific time!

In science there are a few men who chew something that must eternally be chewed again. However, a turning of the tide seems to come in slowly. It is really worthwhile bothering about these other things, this other pole.

Thus we have arrived at polarity, at the law of polarity. The ancient ones wrote: All is polar. There is nothing in the world of phenomena that is not polarized. This is quite an important point, also in esoteric thinking.

Esoteric thinking is always binding. It means that when something is said, it is valid on all levels of thought, and there exists no plane where this basic law does not apply. Just this factor is the reason why all of us do not really like this esotericism.

It is unthinkable that you become engaged or educated esoterically and yet remain the same man or woman who you are today. At one point it will become quite binding. You can no longer continually cheat, not even the IRS. Nor can you kill every fly.

And if you remember what beautiful negative thoughts you have had today and yesterday against your colleagues, against your wife, against some man in the street - you could probably fill many volumes if you recorded them day after day.

In the cosmos there exists a basic law: It is never aggression but the principle of love that wins. I ask all my patients to tell me the most beautiful experience of their life - most of them cannot think of any. Some women just some remember giving birth. And then I ask about the worst experiences. Then it starts! It shows that it is incredibly difficult to recognize a beautiful experience. That is so sad. If one day one gets to know the other face of reality, every day turns into a beautiful one.

The basic law of polarity is the flow - or the breath. It means that there is nothing that is not polar: Health-sickness; war-peace ... Already the next polarity turns up: life and death. Why then is death so bad? "Yes then one can no longer get drunk, no longer smoke .." But then you can do quite different things. Only we don't know anything about it, and that is why we repress death.

Leaving polarity aside, we will now turn to the concept of disease, as that is important for us physicians. When a deep freezer breaks down, there is normally a red warning lamp. The technician will not simply unscrew the little lamp and then say: "Look, now it works again!" We would answer: "You are crazy, my dear!" But in medicine we are doing exactly the same, and this we have done for decades.

When I have someone before me who says: "Doctor, my knees are hurting," I ask: "What are you lacking?" He then replies: "My knees are hurting." - "That was not my question; I asked: 'What are you lacking?'" - Formerly, with the ancients in Greece and Egypt - it can all be read in books, the physicians who, by the way, were priests (only not in the present-day sense), asked: "What insight are you lacking?" And the sick person replied: "Yes, that is just my problem, I do not know it! I must have misunderstood something or done something wrong, because my knees are hurting." That it is precisely the salient point. Because we do not learn this at the university because we are too stupid to see it: which man has what. It can be learned relatively fast. Only, it is a hard way, but it works. We do know a little something from the iris diagnosis. If we become a bit more sensitive to these things, we can immediately recognize everything.

What we do in medicine is so crazy. We always only doctor the least little sore spot. Fate, the best psychotherapist by the way, knocks at your door because there are a few things you have done wrong: Now I will show you by means of high blood pressure! And if you do not understand that, you will get a heart attack. Then you will be taken to the intensive care unit, and there you will surely reflect a little on what you have done wrong. And we physicians, we good doctors, including the naturopaths, we are so fantastic: We very quickly help the patient NOT to get his insight. We help him away from the insight. In so doing - this is the fault of the therapists - we catapult him upon a much harder level of fate. That was already known to our grandmas and grandpas. They said: "Treat the whole man!" But please: "The whole man" does not simply, mean diet. Today everything has to be diet. To eat the largest possible amount of grains! You can eat grains for twenty years if you have no insight. No diet exists that can cure me. Healing is always somewhat connected with becoming whole.

When I arrive at the point where this fundamental question suddenly becomes clear to me: Who am I? From where do I come? What is around me? - therefore, when I recognize why everything is as it is, then everything will become much more beautiful and easier.

There is one thing only that really heals, it is recognizing the meaning behind everything ... meaningfulness.

Fango: Known - Unknown Fango: Transformed Raised Natural Product

By Isaak Beck

Everybody has already heard about Fango (not Tango). Its manufacture could be considered a kind of "natural alchemy". It is used for therapeutic purposes in the case of various forms of chronic arthritis and arthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgias, gout, after bone fractures, etc.

Note has to be taken of the fact that no fango therapy must be applied in the case of cardiac insufficiency, pregnancy, tuberculosis, bleedings, tumors, severe arteriosclerosis, and acute inflammations. The region of Montegrotto-Abana (Italy) once was volcanic and was already known in ancient times for its warm thermal springs. Aristophanes and Aristoteles wrote about it in ancient Greece. An old Roman thermal installation has been dug out in Montegrotto. Today, drilling is done at a depth of 400 m. The water pumped up has a temperature of 80-87 degrees Celsius. It contains salt, bromine, and iodine, and is naturally radioactive. It may perhaps sound incredible, but in this hot water there live twenty different kinds of algae and other micro-organisms.

These algae are real rarities of nature and quite old organisms. In Yellowstone Park, in Asia and Europe we find such unexpected life in thermal water. It begins at 25-35oC., then at 40-50oC, and 80-87oC. According to the temperatures, different kinds of algae grow in it. (Spirulina, S. subtilis, Mastigoeladus luminosus, and others.) Naturally, the thermal water is first of all curative. Its effect, however, is considerably increased by the "Fango".

In the area, there are two small lakes, almost certainly extinguished craters (Lispida, Arqua Petrarca). At the bottom, the "virginal Fango" is now dug up. Its main component is marl (Beidellite, Nontrosite, some Montnorillonite.) (Note: I cannot find these words any place.) They are infinitesimal crystals, tetrahedrons.

The "Virginal Fango" is now subjected to a process of ripening whereby it is transformed into Fango proper and no longer remains ordinary mud. The matter dug out is put into containers. Then follows imbibition: Day and night; the 80oC hot spring water flows over the "earth." Slowly the "Virgin Fango" changes, it begins to ripen. An intimate combination arises between the earth-microorganisms and the thermal water. First it starts to become green (not to be mistaken for the Green Lion). When the surface of the Fango turns reddish-brown, it is ready - ripe. It takes at least four months till it is that far. The original consistency has changed, and we have now a supple thick mass, "ready to be used".

Now its use:

The well-digested earth is used both for partial packs and body packs, except the chest, abdomen, and head. An oil-cloth is put on a table. Over it, one of coarse linen. A body pack requires two buckets of Fango, together 50 kg. In that the person has to lie, after the joints, feet, and hands have been given a portion. The body is covered. (One should have an empty stomach or wait three to four hours after eating.) The temperature of the mud is exactly 47oC., if lower, it is felt as cold. Now the person has to lie there for 15 to 20 minutes-like an Egyptian mummy. (Indeed, in ancient times, the priests were supposedly great sages. They could still be so AT PRESENT. The time is supposed to return when that will again be possible. But now, just NOW, it is not so. Is it not true?)

After this, the body is rinsed, and one goes to the thermal baths like the old Romans, temperature of the water: 34-38oC. Why therefore all this fuss with Fango? there are many reasons for it. Heat penetrates the body much more easily. The pores are opened, and a reciprocal action occurs: the curative substances are absorbed (organic-inorganic radioactive), and perspiration is exuded in the amount of 500 ml to 1000 ml. Complicated processes take effect in the body. Thus, for instance, it has been ascertained that the electrical conductivity of the skin is greatly raised. The glands work differently. The tissues under the skin increase in temperature.

After the bath, it is best to return to one's room and stay in bed for 30 to 60 minutes, when the biological effects continue. Perspiration continues heavily, till it stops of its own. A treatment lasts 10 to 12, at most 21 days. Frequently, a "thermal crisis" takes place after five days. People do not feel well, they are weak, have a slight temperature, sometimes increased blood pressure, a change in the action of the inner abdominal portions, a worsening of the pain or the local functions. There exist also cases of intolerance due to the general condition of the patient, or a thermal fatique that arises too soon. In such cases, the treatment is interrupted.

The appearance or non-appearance of the thermal crisis is not important in regard to the immediate or further results of the treatment. A day of rest after five baths is usual.

After a pack, the used Fango is not thrown away-amongst others, not for economic reasons-but is put in containers in order to be used again. What? Must I now lie in the dirt and waste materials of this disgusting fellow X., whom I have seen while in treatment? No, it is not so. The Fango will stay in the containers for three years, again being imbibed by quite hot thermal water day and night. The algae and microorganisms living in it will permeate the mass and find nourishment in the human secreted poison and perspiration substances. There exists no possibility to live for pathogenic microbes, as the microorganisms defend themselves against them by means of the constantly quite high temperature. After this three-year long digestion, the "Fango" is "raised", still better and more effective than the first time. It is almost a "chemistry of nature". But also in the sense that "gold" is produced from mud, as the many hotels, shops, and people who live by it prove.

Impressions of Le Thoronet Abbey, Provence

By R. Cowley

The Abbey of Le Thoronet is situated to the east of Lorgues and belonged to the diocese of Frejus. Around 1160, work was undertaken by the monks of the Abbey of Florieyes, founded in 1136, in the diocese of Frejus and several kilometres to the east of Tourtour, near a spring of the valley of Floriella or Florieyes. The monastery was situated six miles from Le Thoronet, where it was transferred when the monks decided to leave Florieyes, whose infertile lands brought about the transfer of the Abbey to Le Thoronet.

"And the Spirit of GOD moved upon the face of the Waters."
- Genesis Ch. 1 Vs. 1 & 2.

"In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with GOD, and the WORD was GOD." St. John's Gospel, Ch. 1. Vs 1.

"In the beginning there was BOSENASELO, Nothingness, a great SILENCE. Then something very strange and difficult took place. There was a VOICE in the SILENCE. This was the SPIRIT of NOTHING, a VOICE that speaks all that we know and see. But of this great SPIRIT, we know a nothing. IT comes from ITSELF, is known by ITSELF, and goes out of ITSELF. It is not for us to know. This is what your people call GOD." Rrasebe, the Mother of the Mountains of Makabeng, from "Lightning Bird" by Lyall Watson.

If Chartres Cathedral captures and crystallises the essence of light by means of its glorious jewelled windows, within the sacred space of its geometric and harmonic proportions, then Le Thoronet Abbey Church, austere in the extreme by comparison with the magnificent decorated relief of the Northern Gothic tradition, has its own unique revelation, the mystery of the Creative Word or Sound, contained, but not limited by the confines of its plain magnificence. Chartres and the great cathedrals of the Gothic tradition, by means of the arithmetic, geometric and harmonic proportions, skilfully employed by the initiated priest architects and masons, represent the Heavenly Jerusalem, the Eternal City upon Earth. These structures were created to raise the soul to levels of experience only rarely encountered in the common life, which would serve the pilgrim as a spiritual light for the rest of his or her natural life, a token of the Heavenly Kingdom to come, when, hopefully, he would share the joys of paradise.

Le Thoronet Abbey Church goes beyond this. Entering its Sacred Space, the mind is stilled, one feels raised beyond the manifest creation, beyond the Heavenly City to the Source of the Creation, the Unmanifest Sound, GOD the FATHER brooding upon the Face of the Waters, before the sounding of the WORD which brings the creation forth into manifestation. In this space sound is annihilated, but also, every nuance of sound is heard, harmonics resound, enlightening the soul of the piIgrim who enters within.

There are no visual distractions, no statues of saints, walls unadorned, a simple stone altar, small windows admitting a minimum of light, the sense of space and absolute silence, wherein one becomes aware of the heartbeat and the sound of breathing. The experience within the Church fulfills, if briefly, the aim of all religious philosophies, the extinction of individuality, in the Oneness of the Creator, the experience of Unity or unitedness, so that onIy One exists, GOD.

Le Thoronet Abbey appears to be a very, special place, a node point on the face of the earth which served, and may still serve, to carry certain influences for the benefit of Mankind and the creation. It is probable that there are many others, especially, those built by the Cistercian Order.

They were not built for the use of the general public and even Lay Brothers of the Order were not allowed participation in the Church services. it would seem that the worship within and the experience of the Sacred Space was confined to the Monks received into the Order and prepared by instruction, prayer and meditation, in other words, Christian Initiates. The world at large would be entirely remote from this experience and possibly did not even know of their existence. Le Thoronet was isolated in a vast forest.

Considering the wonderful acoustic properties of this structure, is it possible that the Cistercian Order maintained a perpetual choir in their many establish merits, similar to the Three Perpetual Choirs of Britain in Druidic times. The Welsh Triads speak of "Three great Choirs of Britain, in which there were 2,400 Saints; that is, there were 100 for every hour of the day and night in rotation, perpetuating the praise of God without intermission."

St. Bernard and his Christian Mystery School, the Cistercian Order, were the conscience of their time, reacting against the opulence and degeneration of other orders. They created a perfect instrument in their Churches, which served to link them permanently with the Source of Creation. Today we catch a glimpse of this glory in small measure.

My wife and I were fortunate to arrive at the Abbey in time for the midday Mass on a fine Sunday in August and to hear the heavenly choir of the Little Sisters of the Monastery of Bethlehem, an order established nearby in the village of Le Thoronet, and their singing gave us a measure of the joy which the Brothers must have experienced when they sang their offices in the Sacred Space.

Listening to the Priest conducting the service in French, a story came to mind told by a student some years previously. On holiday in Germany she attended a church service with her German hosts, but not understanding German she just sat and listened, whilst observing the thoughts which ran through her mind. After the service, her friends asked if she understood it, to which she replied that she had not. They asked what she had been thinking about, and on telling them, much to her astonishment, they said, "But that is exactly what the Pastor was talking about."

Discussing our experiences in the Abbey over our picnic lunch, I mentioned to my wife the story coming to mind during the service, and she remarked that it had also come to her mind, and so far as we could determine, at the same time.

I would add that I did not understand a word spoken by the priest.

Further reflections later that day, thoughts about the present apathy in communities regarding church and the services provided. What is lacking for the communicant is the feeling of a direct link with the Creator. Perhaps if churches were designed to the same rigid standards and a knowledge of the canon of proportion as the simple church of Le Thoronet, then the all pervading experience of Immanence would draw the communicant. He may not be able to put into words what he is experiencing, but the effect is such that he would be impelled to refresh himself frequently at the Waters of Life.

On returning home after vacation, I sought out the RILKO Newsletter No. 16 in which there was an article by Robert Lawlor on Cistercian 'Mystic Architecture (which to my shame, I could not recall having read, though whilst at the site I made enquiries if this was the place where they held musical concerts, as I vaguely recollected that such was mentioned by him, none of the guides could tell me, so I was left in doubt). To my great delight I found that his article was indeed describing Le Thoronet, how I wish I had had it with me; he described it with a depth of understanding which is reflected in all his writings. I will end with this quotation from St. Bernard originally used by Robert Lawlor in his article, showing the importance of sound and hearing above all the other senses.

". . . in matters of faith, and in order to know the Truth, the hearing is superior to vision . . . You must know that the Holy Spirit, in order to cause a soul to advance in spirituality . . . educates the hearing before coming to the vision. Listen, my child, he says, and see. Why do you strain to see? It is necessary to lend the ear. The Hearing, moreover, will restore vision to us, if our attention is pious, faithful and vigilant. Only the hearing attains to Truth because it perceives the VERB, and thus one must awaken the hearing and train it to receive the Truth."
- R. Cowley (c) 1983.


Questions and Answers

Q. Why is at that like classes, which should get the same material teachings are not treated alike?

A. We do not understand what you mean by alike. If you have reference to the subject matter all are treated alike. If you mean the way it is presented, you may be right. As you know we make every effort to teach each individual. Hence, the approach necessary to convey what we would like to make known may be different for each person. In the end everyone will get what he or she is able to absorb. It would be of little use to rattle off the same words to everyone just so the words have been said. Little would be gained by students taught in such manner. All are treated alike, according to their ability to comprehend and absorb that which is being taught.

Q. Is there a difference between the Alkahest and the Philosophical Mercury. We are in doubt. Because one of us says that they are not the same while the rest think the substances are alike.

A. Generally speaking it is considered to be the same. However, to those who are initiated into the alchemical terminology it is not the same. The reason why it has been and generally is considered the same rests on the assumption that both the Alkahest and Philosophical Mercury are derived from the mineral world. The difference is that the Alkahest is obtained from a mineral and the Philosophical Mercury from a metal. Both belong to the same realm but differ one from the other, i.e., mineral and metal. The Alkahest will extract from minerals and metals their sulphur or essence and leave the essence-depleted body behind, while the Philosopher's Mercury dissolves both essence and body. The Alkahest (not alcohol) is derived from the vegetabilia and dissolves the essence found within minerals and metals as stated above. This would be the alchemical sulphur. The Alkahest is not the solvent, as the ancients called the Philosophical Mercury.

Q. Do plant extracts and the residue of spagyric plants always show the same elemental qualities, such as eyebright, which comes under the sun; would it have to show gold

A. No. There is a difference between the influence of the planetary ray upon plants and the mineral contents. At first glance it seems to b contrary to what the alchemisists taught. It should be remembered that one can heal diseases by contraries as well as by likes. For example Melissa in an impartial analysis showed lead, zinc, and bromine with the usual other elements present in plant ashes.

A report on hand reads: "A hot water extract of dried Melissa 0fficinalis was concentrated, evaporated to dryness and ashed for about three hours at 1,200oF. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis shows that sample contains lead, zinc and bromine in high amounts. The other elements are present in the usual concentration found in plant ashes."

According to Alchemical terminology lead comes under Saturn and zinc under Neptune with bromine not ascertained at present. The two metals are not related to Jupiter which governs Melissa. How then can this be construed? Either the Alchemists are wrong or our interpretation is out of place. If Jupiter, which is said to govern Melissa, and whose metal is tin, with a positive polarity, and its contrary negative polarity is found in lead and zinc, both negative, would indicate that the law of opposites or contraries would be operative in such case.

Much more needs to be investigated and tabulated which only exhaustive tests can produce. We are in dire need of individuals capable of helping us in further laboratory investigations regarding these and other unsolved questions.

Q. In the "Triumphant Chariot of Antimony" by Valentinus, mention is made on page 109 about Omphacium. Trying to find this word in the dictionary or any place else has proved fruitless. Can you help?

A. The word Omphacium refers to unripe grapes, the green unripened flesh of the grapes. Even as there is a difference between raw meat and cooked meat, so is there a difference between unripened and fully ripened grapes. Dr. Kerkringius' translation into Latin out of the original German made use of the Greek originated word Omphacium. "Omphacium" was also used by A. E. Waite in his English translation. In the original German it reads: "darnach wird darauf gegossen ein auegepresster Saft von unzeitigen Wein-Trauben" (orig. Germ. ed. 1676 at P.R.S. archive). Translated it reads literally "thereafter will have to be poured upon the expressed juice of untimely grapes." The word "unzeitigen" means immatured or not yet fully ripened.

Q. How can I get the sodium borate out of the glass of antimony that had been added according to the formula of Valentinus?

A. Wash it out. The glass must be pulverized ven, finely for the sodium borate to dissolve in the water. When the pH factor shows neutral it is reasonably free. If you have a Soxhlet Extractor with draincock, place the glass to be washed in the thimble. Extract with water as usual. When the water is about to syphon down, open the draincock sufficiently to make the pH factor test. Continue the extraction until the water tests neutral. You will notice when allowing the distilled water to stand over night in the thimble chamber that it will again test negative (alkaline). This is due to the undissolved sodium borate that could only be freed after thorough saturation. It is quite difficult to get the borax completely washed out.

Q. In the herbal work we are told that a stone of the plant world can be made. You showed us a white stone that one of the students had made and told us that it was not yet perfected. I did not quite understand what was meant by that.

A. In the Collectanea Chemica mention was made, and, as we recall, we also read to you from it that such a stone has the medicinal potencies enhanced in it. The repetition of imbibing and calcining, to bring the preparation to a greater state of potency, was what we meant by that statement. It will then change color, becoming yellow and eventually reddish similar to the Great Work, where such color changes are indicated.

Q. Will all chicken eggs putrefy?

A. We have on hand a report from a student in New Zealand who conducted the following experiment with chicken eggs in an attempt to shed some light on the vital question concerning putrefaction in Alchemy. This represents a scientific endeavor and is not to be taken lightly. The experimenter is an Oxford scholar and deeply interested in esotericism. His wife assisted assisted him with this experiment.

Report on experiments to verify or disprove the ancient tradition that hen's eggs are sensitive to cosmic influences in particular those held to be active during the three days that constitute the celebration of the Easter-tide:

The Churches have for some time now been involved in controversy over the date of the Easter festival. It is at present -as is well known- a movable feast in the Christian Year. Being celebrated according to the Roman rule established in England in 669 A.D., which is that Easter Day is the first Sunday after the 14th day of the calendar moon (not the real moon) which happens on or next after the Spring Equinox (March 21st). One of the bitterest points of division between the Celtic and Roman Churches in Britain was the date of keeping the Easter festival. To this day the Eastern Orthodox Church observes Easter a fortnight later according to the old unreformed calendar still in use there. Many times the proposal of fixing Easter has been muted, and in 1928 the British Parliament passed an Act providing that it should fall on the first Sunday after the second Saturday in April. The Order in Council required to bring the Act into force has never been made however.

The experiments to be reported herewith may therefore shed some little light on this controversial question; and raise the further question whether if all calendars are man-made, some are perhaps more so than others?

The connection of the hen's egg with Easter originates with the Jewish Pesach or Passover festival. The Pesach is the Jewish term for the Paschal lamb which is symbolically represented in the modern festival of the Passover by a shank-bone placed on the Sedar plate, together with an egg.

It was therefore decided to keep for a period of seven months, two each of the eggs laid during Holy Week, i.e., two eggs for each day of the week, which were carefully marked with the date, care being taken to ensure that the eggs had actually been laid on that day.

This was done for two years running namely Easter 1968 and Easter 1969. The results are tabulated below:
The eggs were opened after seven months, this being sufficient time for normal putrefaction to have occurred.

Easter week 1968.
Monday - Both eggs totally putrefled - yolk black.
Teusday - Both eggs totally putrefied - yolk black.
Wednesday - Both eggs totally putrefied - yolk black.
Thursday - Both eggs totally putreficd - yolk black.
Good Friday. Of these two eggs one had been fertilized, the other not.

Both eggs had some dehydration of the albumen, but were otherwise perfectly sound. There was no putrefaction, discoloration, or bad smell, with the astounding exception that in the case of the fertilized egg the embryo only had turned black without contaminating the yolk. Both eggs were given to the cat who ate them with every sign of relish.
Easter-Saturday. Both eggs perfectly sound as above.
Easter-Sunday. Both eggs sound, and given to the cat as before.
Holy-Week 1969.

The results as above were repeated. This time my wife and family were eye-witnesses and will corroborate the findings as reported here. There were however, some variations insofar that the Good-Friday egg was not fertile and therefore had no "black-spot"; and we extended the experiment through to Easter Monday. All eggs laid from Good Friday through to Easter-Monday inclusive were without any sign of putrefaction.

It is intended to repeat this experiment this coming Easter also only this time extending the dates covered to include the Jewish Orthodox festivals as well.

Here is a chance to perform an Alchemical experiment with no apparatus at all, other than that provided by nature and the cosmos. Only one condition is suggested - that only eggs from fowls kept under natural conditions be used.

As the writer notes specifically that only eggs from chickens living under natural conditions should be used, this will of course exclude any store bought eggs, or such that one may get "first hand" fresh from a chicken farm where the fowl is kept confined to their coops. Free running chickens should be watched as to where they lay their eggs and above all the time and day involved. Naturally this requires some time and attention, but then, this is an experiment that has to be verified to qualify- as scientific. It may be added that the moon's phase, sign etc. as it prevailed at Eastertime, should be noted and by inference and deduction similar prevailing conditions used for the experiment.

Q. When in my Soxhlet Extractor the thimble has become worn and no replacements are available for some time, is there any other way to keep on extracting without a thimble?

A. Yes, there is. Lay a piece of sterile cotton on the bottom of the extractor so that it forms a filter for the opening of the syphon tube and leaves a layer of about 1/2 - 1 inch on the bottom of the extractor.
You will have more room to put your substance to be extracted in the extractor chamber than when using a thimble. Keep extracting the usual way. The cotton will prevent the clogging of the syphon tube with solids and will become colored from the extract. When the cotton again washes white it is a sure sign that your extraction is completed.

Q. What can be done to get a higher degree of heat from an ordinary Fisher burner?

A. Use some ordinary cement asbestos pipe. Cut so that you can partly immerse your crucible in the cylindcr and vei have it above the flame of the burner. Cut sonic air holes in the bottom for oxygen supply and have enough of an opening on top so that the flame will not be extinguished for lack of oxygen.

Q. Will a distillate contain all the essentials to be obtained from a menstrum?

A. It will contain as much as can be distilled from it. However, the first one-seventh up to one-fourth of either steam (water) or other volatile (alcohol etc.) extracted tincture actually contains the volatile essence by way of distillation. The sulphur and salt will ordinarily stay behind.

Q. Salt of calcined Melissa was fused in a furnace and showed yellow. When dissolved again in distilled water it produced a yellow tincture from the originally white calcined salt (mineral). How come?

A. Apparently not all the Alchemical sulphur was taken out by either maceration or extraction methods used and showed up again in the above water solution.

Q. There is some talk back and forth going on about the effects that tomatoes have in man's metabolism. Can you shed some light on this besides telling us about their vitamin content and such things?

A. Where Carcinoma (cancer) prevails: NO tomatoes. For the increase of the functions of the liver DO use tomatoes. Use the tomato vines for its own fertilizer. Better tomatoes will grow from using their dead vines as fertilizer.

Q. I find that the full moon does not always stimulate the growth as astrologers tell us. What would you say causes this?

A. If there is no rain just before the full moon growth is retarded, but the full moon just before rainy days will stimulate growth. To this some may answer that there is nothing to the theory that water would not do this. This is not so. Please note that we say: "The full moon just before rainy days will stimulate growth."

Q. Can you tell me why Horsetail Grass (Equisetum) is useful in Medicine?

A. Man needs silica and silicic acid. Horsetail Grass contains about 90% silica. Not only that but about half of the earth at our disposal consists of silica. Alchemically speaking, silica is representing the element fire (warmth). Other substances in abundance on our earth and available to man for his health are to be found in limestone, potassium and sodium.